Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Iodine and Breast Cancer

Lynne Farrow has graciously given me permission to post this abstract, and its lay-person's translation, to my blog.  This is copywritten material!

Lynne is the Director of Breast Cancer Choices (which I fully intended to add to the links...but hadn't got there yet).

As you read this article, please keep in mind the short duration of the study, and just what iodine appeared to do in such a short period of time!

 Reposted from breastcancerthinktank with permission-- Lynne Farrow

Below is an article I've been asked to explain in plain English. It bears repeating because people are wondering how one element can possibly produce several mechanisms of action -- in human beings. Researchers looked at human tissue of live patients in the below study. (Other studies have looked at how iodine altered gene expression. )

*There were two groups of breast cancer patients designated between biopsy and surgery. One group was given a placebo. The other group was given iodine in a small amount because the researchers were afraid of iodine's theoretical effect on the thyroid. The tissue was removed from both groups at surgery (either lumpectomy or mastectomy) and compared.
The iodine-takers' tissue was profoundly different than the non takers.
To summarize the most important points:
(1) the cancer cells were dividing much more slowly in the iodine takers than in the placebo group.

(2) Apoptosis --natural programmed cell death which you want-- increased in the iodine takers.
(3) Vascularization was diminished in the iodine takers. Meaning blood vessels which would enable the tumor to grow and/or spread were significantly reduced. (This means iodine was working as an "angiogenesis inhibitor.")  Remember all those anti-angiogenesis drugs the late Dr. Judah Folkman worked on for 45 years?
(4) VEGF, a chemical which promotes growth, was reduced.
--------------------------ACTUAL SUMMARY-----------
Presented at San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2008:
[3082] The antineoplasic effect of molecular iodine on human mammary cancer involves the activation of apoptotic pathways and the inhibition of angiogenesis.

Vega-Riveroll L, Mondragón P, Rojas-Aguirre J, Romero-Romo J, Delgado G, Aceves C Instituto de Neurobiologia, Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico; Hospital Regional #3 del IMSS, Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico; Hospital General de Queretaro, Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia in women. One factor thought to influence the incidence of breast cancer is diet. Japanese women, who have a high dietary intake of iodine (5280 vs 209 g/day in western population) due to ingestion of seaweed, have the lowest incidence of breast cancer in the world. In normal mammary gland, iodine deficiency is involved in dysplasias, which are reversible with I2 but not with iodide administration. Recent data generated in our laboratory showed that continuous treatment with I2, but not iodide, has a potent antineoplastic effect on tumoral progression in N-methyl-N-nitrosou rea-treated virgin rats (50-70%). Also I2 treatment in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, but not in normal mammary cells (MCF-12F), shows a significant apoptotic effect induced by activation of Bax-caspases and AIF-PARP-1 pathways. Based on these findings, a study of women diagnosed with cancer (mammography and tru-cut biopsy) was
 initiated. Patients were divided into placebo or I2 (5 mg/day) groups for 2 to 5 weeks before surgery. One day before beginning the I2 treatment and the day of the surgery, urine and blood samples were collected. The day before surgery, a second mammography was obtained. In the tumor samples proliferation (PCNA), apoptosis (TUNEL), and vasculature area (CD-31) were analyzed by immunohistochemistr y. Bax, Bcl2, p53, and VEGF proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Circulating TSH and T3 levels were measured by RIA and urinary iodide by HPLC. The results showed that although tumor size did not differ between groups, a significantly lower proliferation and increased apoptotic rate were observed in tumors from women supplemented with iodine. In these tumors the ratio Bax/Bcl2 increased, p53 levels were unchanged, and VEGF levels and vasculature area diminished significantly.
  Serum TSH and T3 showed no changes in any group, indicating that I2 treatment had not compromised the thyroid status. We propose that I2 supplements should be considered for use in clinical trials of breast cancer therapies. We thank Dr. Jorge lvarez-Aguirre2,3, Dr. Alonso Gallegos-Corona2, Lic. Concepcin Correa-Tinajero3, Alejandro Nez-Nolasco2,3, and Silvia Serrato-guila2. This work was partially supported by: PAPIIT-UNAM IN201207, and CONACyT 44976-M and 85952.

Friday, December 12, 2008 5:00 PM

Poster Session III: Tumor Cell and Molecular Biology: Novel / Emerging Therapeutic Targets (5:00 PM-7:00 PM)